Coke is a fuel with some contaminants and high carbon content, usually made from coal. It is the compact carbonaceous material obtained from harmful distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. Cokes formed from coal are grey. While coke can be produced naturally, the generally used form is human-made. The structure is petroleum coke, or pet coke, obtained from oil factory cooker units or other damaging processes. Coke is used as a fuel and a reducing factor in smelting iron ore in a blast stove. The carbon monoxide generated by its flaming decreases iron oxide to the iron product. Although coke is more costly than coal, it can be used in homes as a clean fuel, almost free of smoke and pollutants. Currently, its use in household heating has been shorter than oil or gas, but in the 20th century, it was usually used in kitchen stoves.
History of coke fuel:
Classical origins dating to the 4th century represent the production of coke in ancient China. The Chinese first applied coke for heating and cooking. By the first decades of the eleventh century, Chinese iron artisans in the Yellow River valley began to fuel their boilers with coke, solving their fuel problem in that tree-sparse ward.
In 1709, Abraham Darby founded a coke-fired blast stove to produce counted iron. Coke’s excellent crushing energy allowed blast stoves to become higher and more valuable. The ensuing availability of low-priced iron was one of the leading factors to the Industrial Revolution. Before this time, iron-making used large numbers of charcoal, produced by burning wood.
The first use of coke in the United States, an iron stove, transpired around 1817 at Isaac Meason’s Plum sock puddling stove and rolling mill in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. In the late 19th century, the coalfields of western Pennsylvania provided an intense origin of rough material for coking. In 1885, the Rochester and Pittsburgh Coal and Iron Company formed the world’s most extended series of coke ovens in Walton, Pennsylvania.
Properties of coke fuel:
The essential coke assets are ash and sulphur content, subservient on the coal used for production. Coke with less ash and sulphur content is exceptionally high prize on the market. Other significant components are the M10, M25, and M40 test crush contents, which dispatch the strength of coke during moving into the blast stoves; depending on blast stoves size, finely-crushed coke interests must not be allowed into the blast stoves because they would prevent the flow of gas through the charge of iron and coke. A relevant characteristic is the Coke Strength after Response (CSR) index; it presents coke’s ability to resist the rough forms inside the blast stove before turning into fine particles.
Active components of the coal—including water, coal-gas, and coal-tar—are driven off by baking in an airless stove or oven (kiln) at warmth as high as 2,000 °C (3,600 °F) but usually around 1,000–1,100 °C (1,800–2,000 °F). This combines the fixed carbon and extra ash.
Bituminous coal necessity meets a set of standards for use as coking coal, limited by appropriate coal assay techniques. These incorporate moisture content, ash content, sulphur content, volatile content, tar, and plasticity. This blending is targeted at producing coke of appropriate strength. . It is usually considered that levels of 26–29% of an active subject in the coal blend are suitable for cooking objectives. Thus various types of coal are proportionally combined to reach satisfactory levels of volatility before the coking process begins.
Coal to Coke Conversion Process:
Coal is a blackish-brown combustible sedimentary rock that appears in the various rock layers referred to as coal beds or seams. Those coals which are hard in the form are called anthracite and, at times, are also known as a metamorphic rock due to the exposure in high temperature and pressure. It is mainly composed of chief constituents like hydrogen, sulphur, and other essential gases like oxygen or nitrogen. Coal is also used as a fossil fuel for producing electricity and various other industrial purposes. The process in which the conversion of coal to coke takes place is referred to as coal carbonation. Coke is nothing but a carbonaceous material solid in nature, which is again derived through the process of destructive distillation of low ash, low-sulphur, and bituminous coal. Those cokes formed as a result of the conversion from coal to coke usually appear as grey, hard, and porous. There are some instances of coke that are formed naturally, while others are created through the intervention of man.
Uses of Coke Fuel:
It includes carbon and is similar to coal. It is made from coal by heating out things that are not carbon. Coke is a product of the toxic distillation of coal. This is done in an airless stove or oven (kiln) at temperatures as high as 2,000 °C (3,600 °F) but generally around 1,000–1,100 °C (1,800–2,000 °F). This baking drives off active parts of the coal, such as water, gas, and tar. Coke is an almost pure form of carbon. The carbon monoxide produced by its flaming decreases iron oxide (haematite) to the iron product. Although coke is more expensive than coal, it can be used in houses as a clean fuel, almost free of smoke and impurities. Currently, its use in domestic heating has been less than oil or gas, but in the 20th century, it was often used in kitchen stoves.
Coke fuel production by countries:
|Australia & New Zealand||3.11|
Exporter countries of coke fuel:
Coke Market Overview:
Global Coke fuel Market Size was estimated at $16,680 million in 2016 and is foreseen to reach $29,648 million by 2023, recording a CAGR of 8.6% during the prediction period 2017-2023. Petroleum coke is the final solid substance derived from oil refining and is accessible in two forms, fuel grade, and calcined grade. It is used in many industries such as power production, construction, aluminium, other metals, etc. Asia-Pacific commanded the global petroleum coke market with more than half share in 2016.
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Name: Samira H.
Revised Date: 19-08-2020