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Coal : The precious source of energy generation

What is coal? Coal is a burnable black rock formed as rock layers known as coal seams. Fuel is mostly carbon with unsteady amounts of other components; chiefly hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is built up when dead plant matter turns into peat and is transformed into fuel by the heat and pressure of deep interment over millions of years. As a fossil fuel consumed for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's initial energy, and two-fifths of its electricity, some iron and steel making, and other manufacturing processes burn coal. History of coal: Coal was an essential fuel of the Industrial Revolution. Coal was a necessary part of rail transportation in the UK in the 20th century, producing the more critical part of various     companies' freight volume. Early in the 21st century, most coal burned power stations in the United Kingdom and other countries were closed to decrease greenhouse gas discharges. Coal was invented millions of years ago, before the dinosaurs Era. Vast swamps covered much of the earth. They were filled with enormous ferns and plants. When plants died, they fell to the back of the wetlands. Thick layers of plants were comprised of dirt and water. They were packed down by the weight. After a long time, the heat and pressure transformed the plants into coal. Coal is also called a fossil fuel. It was made from plants that were once alive! Since coal comes from plants, and plants observe their energy from the sun, the energy in coal also comes from the sun. The coal we generally use today took millions of years to form. We can’t make more in a short time. Coal is the most productive fuel in the fossil class, and has the most extended and, perhaps, the most different history. It has also been used for heating since the caveman. Archaeologists have also found proof that the Romans in England used it in the second and third centuries (100- 200 AD). In the 1700s, the English discovered that coal could generate a fuel that burned cleaner and warmer than wood charcoal. The Hopi Indians used coal for cooking, heating, and baking the pottery,     Coal Mining and Transportation: Most coal is buried under the ground. If coal is near the exterior, miners dig it up with massive machines. First, they rub off the dirt and rock, then dig out every coal. This is called surface drilling. After the coal is mined, they put back the soil and rock. They plant trees and grass. The land can then be used again. This is called recycling. If the coal is immersed in the ground, holes, called mine shafts, are dug down to the coal. Machines dig the coal and carry it to the exterior. Some mine shafts are 1,000 feet distant. This is called deep mining, or interior mining. In the mine, coal is stored in small coal cars or on conveyor zones which carry it outside the tunnel to where the larger pieces of coal are stored on the trucks that take it to be damaged (smaller pieces of coal are more comfortable to transport, clean, and burn). The crushed coal sent by truck, railroad, ship, or barge. You may be shocked to know that coal can also be shipped by pipeline. Crushed coal can be combined with oil or water and sent by pipeline to an industrial user. How to Clean Coal? Coal is our most plentiful fossil fuel. The United States has extra coal than the world has oil. There is still sufficient coal underground in this country. It provides energy for the next 250 years or more. But coal is not a perfect fuel. Confined inside coal are marks of pollutants like sulphur and nitrogen. When coal burns, these contaminants are released into the air. While floating in the air, these elements can be mixed up with water vapour (for example, in clouds) and form droplets that fall to earth as weak modes of sulphuric and nitric acid. Experts call it “acid rain.” There are also specks of minerals—including ordinary dirt— mixed in coal. These little elements don’t burn and make up the ash left behind in a coal combust. Some of the small particles also get caught up in the swirling combustion gasses and, along with water vapour, form the smoke coming out of a coal plant’s chimney. Some of these elements are so small that 30 of them would almost match the width of a human hair! What is coal used for? Coal is used as fuel to produce electric power. The coal is heated, and the heat given off is used to change water into steam, which drives a turbine. In 2012, about 39% of all electricity in the United States was produced by coal-fired power plants. Different types of coal have different uses: Steam coal - also known as thermal coal - is mostly used in power generation Cooking coal - also known as metallurgical coal - is mostly used in steel production.

Types Of coal:

There are four major types of coal mentioned here:  1.Anthracite_it is the most significant rank of coal. It is a reliable, brittle, and black bright coal, often                connected to as hard coal, including a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low rate of active matter. 2.Bituminous_ This kind of coal is the average rank of coal between sub-bituminous and anthracite. Bituminous usually has high-heating value and is the most popular type of coal used in electricity production in the United States. Bituminous coal seems shiny and soft when you first see it but view it closer, and you may see it has layers. 3.Sub bituminous_ This kind of coal is black-coloured and not shiny. It has a more powerful heating power than lignite coal. 4.Lignite_ Also known as brown coal, it is a soft, brown, flammable rock produced from naturally-compacted peat. It is considered the cheapest rank of coal due to its comparably low heat content. Production of coal by country:

Country 2017 Share
China 3,523 46%
India 716 9%
United States 702 9%
Australia 481 6%
Indonesia 461 6%
Russia 411 5%
Rest of World 1433 19%
World Total 7,727 100%

 Major coal exporters: 

Country 2018
United states 105
Russia 210
Indonesia 429
Colombia 84
Australia 387

Major coal importers:

Country 2018
China 281
Idea 223
Japan 181
South Korea 149
Taiwan 76
Germany 44
Netherlands 44
Turkey 38
Malaysia 34
Thailand 25

Coal Market Size:

The coal market transferred value of almost $366.7 billion in 2018, having arisen at a combined annual growth rate (CAGR) of -11.7% since 2014. Growth in the vital period resulted from the enhanced demand for coal power production, the appearance of vast coal reserves globally, and technological advancements in power production that developed the efficiency of coal power plants. Factors that negatively affected growth in the classical period were shifting to alternative origins of energy such as natural gas and renewable, coal price volatility that suspended procurement plans of coal end-users, and many fatal accidents at coal mines. Name: Samira H. Revised Date: 19-08-2020  

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By Saha on October 19, 2021


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